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JoVE Core: Cell Biology Unit II

JoVE Core: Cell Biology illustrates complex cellular processes in easy-to-understand yet comprehensive animated video lessons. This collection focuses on the essential components and functions of cells, including organelles and membranes, cellular transport, and cell energetics.

Chapter 21: Principles of Cell Signaling

  • Overview of Cell Signaling
  • Types of Signaling Molecules
  • Types of Receptors: Cell Surface Receptors
  • Types of Receptors: Internal Receptors
  • Assembly of Signaling Complexes
  • Interactions Between Signaling Pathways
  • Amplifying Signals via Second Messengers
  • Amplifying Signals via Enzymatic Cascades
  • Diversity in Cell Signaling Responses
  • Cell Signaling Feedback Loops
  • Cell Signaling in Plants
  • Plant Hormones

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Chapter 22: Signaling Networks of G Protein-coupled Receptors

  • G Protein-coupled Receptors
  • Activation and Inactivation of G Proteins
  • GPCR Desensitization
  • G-Protein Gated Ion Channels
  • GPCRs Regulate Adenylyl Cylase Activity
  • cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase Pathways
  • IP3/DAG Signaling Pathway
  • Feedback Regulation of Calcium Concentration
  • Calmodulin-dependent Signaling
  • Nitric Oxide Signaling Pathway

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Chapter 23: Signaling Networks of Kinase Receptors

  • Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
  • Small GTPases - Ras and Rho
  • MAPK Signaling Cascades
  • The JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway
  • PI3K/mTOR/AKT Signaling Pathway
  • TGF- β Signaling Pathway

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Chapter 24: Alternative Signaling Routes in Gene Expression

  • Notch Signaling Pathway
  • Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway
  • Non-Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathways
  • Hedgehog Signaling Pathway
  • NF-kB-dependent Signaling Pathway
  • Circadian Rhythms and Gene Regulation

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Chapter 25: The Cytoskeleton I: Actin and Microfilaments

  • Introduction to the Cytoskeleton
  • Adaptability of Cytoskeletal Filaments
  • Polarity of the Cytoskeleton
  • Assembly of Cytoskeletal Filaments
  • Cytoskeleton Linker Proteins - Plakins
  • Cytoskeletal Accessory Proteins
  • Cytoskeletal Proteins in Bacteria
  • Intracellular Movement of Viruses and Bacteria
  • Studying the Cytoskeleton
  • Introduction to Actin
  • Actin Polymerization
  • Actin Treadmilling
  • Generation of Straight or Branched Actin Filaments
  • Actin Filament Depolymerization
  • Formation of Higher-order Actin Filaments
  • Overview of Myosin Structure and Function
  • Actin and Myosin in Muscle Contraction
  • Role of Actin and Myosin in Non-muscle Cells

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Chapter 26: The Cytoskeleton II: Microtubules and Intermediate Filaments

  • Microtubules
  • Microtubule Instability
  • Microtubule Formation
  • Microtubule Associated Proteins (MAPs)
  • Destabilization of Microtubules
  • Microtubule Associated Motor Proteins
  • The Movement of Organelles and Vesicles
  • Assembly of Complex Microtubule Strucutures
  • Microtubules in Cell Motility
  • Mechanism of Ciliary Motion
  • Microtubules in Signaling
  • Drugs that Stabilize Microtubules
  • Drugs that Destabilize Microtubules
  • The Structure of Intermediate Filaments
  • Types of Intermediate Filaments
  • Formation of Intermediate Filaments
  • Disassembly of Intermediate Filaments
  • Septins
  • Role of Septins

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Chapter 27: Extracellular Matrix in Animals

  • The Extracellular Matrix
  • Glycosaminoglycans
  • Collagen are the Major Structural Proteins of ECM
  • Fibril Associated Collagen
  • Elastin is Responsible for Tissue Elasticity
  • Fibronectins Connect Cells with ECM
  • Matrix Proteoglycans and Glycoproteins
  • Role of Matrix Metalloproteases in Degradation of ECM
  • Basal Lamina are the Specialized Form of ECM
  • Laminins are the Adhesive Proteins of Basal Lamina
  • Type IV Collagen of Basal Lamina

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Chapter 28: Cell-Matrix Interactions

  • Overview of Cell-matrix Interactions
  • Integrins
  • Activation of Integrins
  • Integrin-mediated Signalling
  • Anchoring Junctions
  • Cell-matrix's Response to Mechanical Forces

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Chapter 29: Cell-cell Interactions

  • Cell Adhesion Molecules — Types and Functions
  • Structure of Cadherins
  • Cadherins In Tissue Organization
  • Catenins
  • Selectins
  • Immunoglobin-like Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • Overview of Cell-Cell Junctions
  • Adherens Junction
  • Tension Response at Adherens Junctions
  • Desmosomes
  • Tight Junctions
  • Gap Junctions

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Chapter 30: Cell Polarization and Migration

  • Cell Migration
  • Actin-mediated Cell Motility
  • Types of Membrane Protrusions
  • Mechanism of Lamellipodia Formation
  • Mechanism of Filopodia Formation
  • Cancer Cell Migration through Invadopodia
  • Cell Motility through Blebbing
  • Role of Myosin Proteins in Cell Adhesion and Motility
  • Cell Polarization by Rho Proteins
  • Chemotaxis and Direction of Cell Migration
  • The Cytoskeleton Coordinates Whole Cell Polarization and Locomotion

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Chapter 31: Integration of Plant Cells into Tissues

  • Plant Tissues
  • Plant Cell Wall
  • Tonicity in Plants
  • Cellulose and Pectic Polysaccharides
  • Role of Microtubules in Cell Wall Deposition
  • Plasmodesmata
  • Adhesion Molecules in Plants

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Chapter 32: Analyzing Cells and Proteins

  • Overview of Cell Separation and Isolation
  • Tissue Homogenization
  • Cell Culture
  • Cell Lines
  • Hybridoma Technology
  • Subcellular Fractionation
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Principles Of Column Chromatography
  • Types Of Column Chromatography
  • Immunoprecipitation
  • Tagging and Fusion Proteins
  • Western Blotting
  • 2D Gel Electrophoresis
  • Enzyme-linked Immunoassay (ELISA)
  • MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry
  • Peptide Identification Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry
  • X-Ray Diffraction Of Biological Samples
  • Applications Of NMR In Biology
  • Proteomics

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Chapter 33: Visualizing Cells, Tissues, and Molecules

  • Imaging Biological Samples with Optical Microscopy
  • Phase Contrast and Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy
  • Fixation and Sectioning
  • Immunofluorescence Microscopy
  • Immunocytochemistry and Immunohistochemistry
  • Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy
  • Protein Dynamics in Living Cells
  • Total Internal Reflection
  • Fluorescence Microscopy
  • Atomic Force Microscopy
  • Superresolution Fluorescence Microscopy
  • Overview of Electron Microscopy
  • Scanning Electron Microscopy
  • Transmission Electron Microscopy
  • Preparation of Samples for Electron Microscopy
  • Immunogold Electron Microscopy
  • Cryo-electron Microscopy
  • Electron Microscope Tomography and Single-particle Reconstruction

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Chapter 34: Cell proliferation: Control of Cycle, Division, and Growth

  • What is the Cell Cycle?
  • Interphase
  • The Cell Cycle Control System
  • Positive Regulator Molecules
  • Inhibition of CDK Activity
  • S-Cdk Initiates DNA Replication
  • M-Cdk Drives Transition Into Mitosis
  • Mitogens and the Cell Cycle
  • Replicative Cell Senescence
  • Abnormal Proliferation
  • Cells Coordinate Growth and Proliferation

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Chapter 35: The Stages of Cell Division

  • Mitosis and Cytokinesis 
  • Chromosome Duplication 
  • Cohesins
  • Condensins 
  • The Mitotic Spindle 
  • Centrosome Duplication 
  • Spindle Assembly 
  • Attachment of Sister Chromatids 
  • Forces Acting on Chromosomes 
  • Separation of Sister Chromatids 
  • The Spindle Assembly Checkpoint 
  • Anaphase A and B
  • Anaphase Promoting Complex 
  • The Contractile Ring 
  • Determining the Plane of Cell Division 
  • The Phragmoplast 
  • Distribution of Cytoplasmic Content 

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Chapter 36: Meiosis

  • What is Meiosis?
  • Meiosis I 
  • Meiosis II
  •  Meiosis vs. Mitosis
  • Crossing Over
  • Non- disjunction

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Chapter 37: Cell Death 

  • Overview of Cell Death 
  • Apoptosis 
  • Caspases
  • The Extrinsic Apoptotic Pathway 
  • The Intrinsic Apoptotic Pathway 
  • Phagocytosis of Apoptotic Cells 
  • Autophagic Cell Death 
  • Necrosis

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Chapter 38: Cancer

  • What is Cancer?
  • Cancers Originate from Somatic Mutations in a Single Cell
  • Tumor Progression 
  • Adaptive Mechanisms in Cancer Cells 
  • The Tumor Microenvironment
  • Metastasis
  • Cancer-Critical Genes I: Proto-oncogenes
  • Cancer-Critical Genes II: Tumor Suppressor Genes
  • Loss of Tumor Suppressor Gene Function 
  • The Retinoblastoma Gene
  • Mechanism of Retrovirus-induced Cancers
  •  Rous Sarcoma Virus (RSV) and Cancer 
  • The Ras Gene 
  • mTOR Signaling and Cancer Progression 
  • Cancer Stem Cells and Tumor Maintenance 
  • Mouse Models of Cancer Study 
  • Cancer Prevention 
  • Cancer Therapies 
  • Targeted Cancer Therapies 
  • Treatment Resistant Cancers 
  • Combination Therapies and Personalized Medicine

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Chapter 39: Stem Cell Biology And Renewal in Epithelial Tissue

  • Zygotic Development And Stem Cell Formation

  • Source And Potency Of Stem Cells

  • Stem Cell Niche

  • Renewal of Intestinal Stem Cells

  • Role of Ephrin-Eph and Notch Signalling in Intestinal Stem Cell Renewal

  • Renewal of Skin Epidermal Stem Cells

  • Multipotency and Niche of Bulge Stem Cell

  • Clinical Applications of Epidermal Stem Cells

  • Distinctive Features of Adult Stem Cells vs Cancer Stem Cells

  • Stem Cell Culture

  • Tissue Renewal without Stem Cells

  • Unrenewable Cells

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Chapter 40: A Hierarchical Stem-Cell System: Blood Cell Formation

  • Overview of the Vascular System
  • Mechanism of Angiogenesis
  • Regulation of Angiogenesis and Blood Supply
  • Hematopoiesis
  • Multipotency of Hematopoietic Stem Cells
  • Lineage Commitment
  • Erythropoiesis
  • Differentiation of Common Myeloid Progenitor Cells
  • Regulation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

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Chapter 41: Fibroblast Transformation and Muscle Stem Cells

  • Connective Tissue Cell Types
  • Introduction to Fibroblasts
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells
  • Growth of Cartilage and Bone Tissue
  • Osteoclasts in Bone Remodeling
  • Overview of Skeletal Muscle
  • Formation of Muscle Fibers from Myoblasts
  • Satellite Stem Cells and Muscular Dystrophy

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Chapter 42: Regeneration and Repair

  • Overview of Regeneration and Repair
  • Phases of Wound Repair
  • Whole Body Regeneration
  • Liver Regeneration
  • Stem Cell Therapy for Tissue Regeneration
  • Introduction To Nuclear Reprogramming
  • Methods of Nuclear Reprogramming
  • Cloning of Dolly the Sheep

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Chapter 43: Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

  • Embryonic Stem Cells
  • Maintenance of the ES Cell State
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
  • Somatic to iPS Cell Reprogramming
  • Chromatin Modification in iPS cells
  • iPS Cell Differentiation
  • Forced Transdifferentiation
  • EPS and iPS Cells in Disease Research

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